Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose or blood sugar is too high. You gain blood glucose from your food that you daily eat. Insulin is responsible for lower the glucose level. Diabetes mellitus described as a group of metabolic disease in which the person has high blood glucose or blood sugar, either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body cells do not respond properly.
Types of diabetes
There are two types of diabetes type 1 and type 2.
Type 1 diabetes: in this type the body’s immune system which normally fights infection, attacks and kill cells in pancreas that performing secretion of insulin. As a result your pancreases stop making insulin and you effect from type 1 diabetes. It can be effect in young age. Its symptoms can be seen easily
- Increased thirst
- Urination and blurred vision
- Unexplained weight loss
On the other hand type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance; it can be treated using different therapeutic approaches. Like injections and pills. It affects more often in middle age and old age people. Symptoms can be seen easily.
- Overweight and obesity
I have explained short description of diabetes now let’s move on its therapeutic approaches.
Medication for type 1 diabetes
For those who is facing type 1 diabetes needs lifelong insulin therapy. There are many types of insulin some are recommended I am explaining here for best treatment.
Rapid –Acting insulin
Short acting insulin is regular insulin including Humulin R and Novolin R.
Rapid-acting insulin are Glulsine( Apidra), Insulin lispro( Humalog) ans Novolog
Long acting insulin are Glargine ( Lantus, Toujeo ,Solostar) Insulin detemir( Levemir) and insulin degludec ( Tresiba)
Intermediate-acting insulins are insulin NPH ( Novolin N, Humulin N).
Food and Drug Administration approved in September 2016 the first artificial pancreas for people with type 1 diabetes under age 14 year and older. It is closed loop insulin. Implemented device links with monitor for checking blood sugar levels in every five minutes to an insulin pump. This device automatically delivers the correct amount of insulin when it’s needed.
This is best medicine in type 1 diabetes foe maintaining normal heart.
High blood pressure medication
Doctors may prescribe medicines for high blood pressure in type 1 diabetes angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) to help for normal kidneys. Medicines are recommended for diabetes that has high blood pressure above 140/90 mm Hg.
Cholesterol Lowering Drug
This is very risky in diabetic patients who have high cholesterol level that can effect on kidneys and heart. To reduce its danger doctors recommended low density Lipoprotein (LDL, or bad) cholesterol is below 100 mg/dl (2.6 mmoi/L). High density lipoprotein cholesterol is recommended over 50 mg/Dl (1.3 mmoI/L) in men. Triglycerides another type of blood fat is ideal when they are less than 150 mg/Dl (1.7 mmoI/L).
Medications for Type 2 Diabetes
Acarbose( precose )
It blocks enzymes that digest starch, slowing the rise in blood sugar. It belongs a group of drugs called Alpha-glucosidas inhibitors.
It boosts insulin level when sugars are too high and liver cut back on making sugars. It is called DPP-IV inhibitors. It does not cause weight gain.
Bromocriptine mesylate (Cycloset, Parlodel)
This tablet raises the level of dopamine and helps to improve blood sugar control with type 2 diabetes.
Boost glucose leaves in urine and blocks from reabsorbing gucose.it is called SGLT2 inhibitor.
It lowers blood sugar by prompting the pancreas to release more insulin it is called sulfonylureas.
It lowers the LDL cholesterol and improves blood sugar control in type 2 diabetes it is called bile acid sequestrants.
Boost how much glucose leaves in urine and blocks your kidney from reabsorbing glucose. It is called SGLT2 inhibitor.
Boost glucose that leaves your body in urine .it is also called SGLT2 inhibitor.
Lower blood sugar by prompting the pancreas to release more insulin it is called sulfonylureas.
Lower blood sugar by prompting the pancreas to release more insulin. It is called SULFONYLUREAS.
Cartridge contains a dose of powdered rapid acting insulin inhaler us it before start you eat.
Boosts insulin level when blood sugars are too high and tells the liver to cut back on making sugar. It is called DPP-IV inhibitor. You can also take them along with another drug like metformin.
Blocks enzymes that help digest starches slowing the blood sugar. It belongs the drug group called alpha-glucosidas inhibitors.
Makes the pancreas release more insulin but only if blood sugar is too high. It is called meglitinide.
Victoza is hormone that is present in the blood naturally to helps control blood sugar, insulin level and digestion. It can be used along with diet and exercise to improve blood sugar control in adults with type 2 diabetes. It helps in reduce the risk of serious heart problem such as heart attack or stroke in adults with type 2 diabetes It is usually given to patients with type 2 diabetes not type 1 diabetes.
Glucophage metformin is an oral medicine that helps in control high blood sugar level it is used together with diet and exercise to improve blood sugar control in adults with type 2 diabetes.
It can be easily used with insulin or other medications. Severe kidney disease pt cannot use glucophage. Before using it is must to do x-rays and ct scan using a dye that is injected into your veins for stop taking glucophage.
Metformin cause lactic acidosis.to seek emergency help in mild symptoms like muscle pain, weakness, numbness, coldness and vomiting. Glucophage is heavily used drug in Pakistan. But it is also contraindicate for several disease patients. We must focus on precaution before taking any drugs. Do not taking drug on self medication it can be dangerous. We must focus on expert advice before taking any drug that can prevent from different risk factors in life.