Brain Tumor Types and Treatment Facilities in USA

Brain tumor is a mass of abnormal growth of cell in the brain. It occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain. Brain tumor represents a group of neoplasm arising from brain tissues, each with their own unique biology, prognosis and treatment. Many different types of brain tumor exist. Some brain tumor are non cancerous (benign), and some brain tumors are cancerous (malignant) brain tumor can begin in your primary brain tumor, or cancer can begin in other parts of your body and spread to your brain Secondary and Metastatic brain tumor. How quickly a brain tumor growth can vary greatly.

cancer cell made in 3d software
Cancer cell made in 3d software (Credits: vitanovski/Getty Images under Standard License)

Types of brain tumors

All types of brain tumor may produce symptoms that vary dependent on the part of the brain involved. These symptoms may include headache, seizures, problem vision, vomiting and mental changes. The headache is classically worse in the morning and goes away with vomiting. More specific problems may include difficulty in walking, speaking and with sensation. As the disease progresses unconsciousness may occur. The brain is divide into lobes and each lobes or area has its own function tumor in any of these lobes may affect the areas performance. The location of tumors is often linked to the symptoms experienced but each person may experience something different.

Frontal lobe tumors may contribute to poor reasoning, inappropriate social behavior, personality changes, poor planning, lower inhibition and decrease production of speech (Broca’s area).

Temporal lobe tumor may contribute to poor memory loss of hearing, difficulty in language comprehension (Wernicke’s area).

Parietal lobe tumors here may result in poor interpretation of language, decreased sense of touch and pain, poor spatial and visual perception.

Occipital lobe tumor is damage to this lobe may result in poor or loss of vision. Cerebellum tumor in this area may cause poor balance muscle movement and posture.

Brain stem tumors on this can affect blood pressure, swelling and heart beat.

Primary brain tumor originates in the brain itself or in tissues close to it, such as in the brain-covering membranes (meninges), cranial nerves, pituitary glands and pineal glands. Primary brain tumor begins when normal cells acquire errors (mutation) in their DNA. These mutations allow cells to grow and divide at increased rate and to continue living when healthy cells would die. The result is a mass of abnormal cells, which forms a tumor. Primary brain tumor is much less common than are secondary brain tumor in which cancer begins elsewhere and spreads to the brain. Many different types of primary brain tumors exist.

Gliomas: This tumor begins in brain or spinal cord and includes strocytomas, ependymoma, glioblastomas, oligoastrocytomas and oligodenrogliomas.

Meningiomas: A meningiomas is a tumor that arise from the membrane that surrounds your brain and spinal cord (meninges).Most maningiomas are non cancerous.

Acoustic neuromas (schwannomas): These are benign tumors that develop on the nervous that control balance and hearing leading from your inner ear to your brain.

Pituitary adenomas: These are mostly benign tumors that develop in the pituitary glands t the base of the base.

Medullablastomas: These are the most common cancerous brain tumor in children. a medulloblastomas starts in the lower back part of the brain and tends to spread to the spinal fluids. It is less common in adults.

PNETs primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are rare cancerous tumors that start in embryonic cells in the brain. They can occur anywhere in the brain.

Germ cell tumors: Germ cell tumors may develop during childhood where the testicles or ovaries will form.bur sometime germ cells tumors moves to other parts of the body such as the brain.

Craniopharyngiomas: These rare non cancerous starts near the brain’s pituitary gland, which secrets hormones that control may many body functions.

Secondary metastatic brain tumors are tumors that results from cancer that starts elsewhere in your body and then spreads (metastasizes) to your brain. Secondary brain tumor most often occurs in people who have a history of cancer. But in rare cases metastatic brain tumor may be the firs sign of cancer that begin else where in your body. Secondary brain tumor are far more common than are primary brain tumor. Any cancer can spread to the brain, but the most common types include:

  • Breast cancer
  • Colon cancer
  • Kidney cancer
  • Lung cancer
  • Melanoma

Brain Tumor Treatment Facilities in USA

Treatment for a brain tumor depends on size, type and location of the tumor, as well as your overall health and your preferences. When a brain tumor is diagnosed, a medical team will be formed to assess the treatment options presented by the region to the patients and his/her family. In America there are lots of treatments are used to treat the brain tumor. In brain tumor different types of doctors’ works together to create patient’s overall treatment plan that combines different types of treatment. This is called multidisciplinary team.

However, research in the past 20 years has helped to significantly lengthen the lives of people with brain tumors. More refined surgeries, a better understanding of the types of tumors that respond to chemotherapy, and more targeted delivery of radiation therapy have lengthened lives and improved the quality of life for many people diagnosed with brain tumor. Some of the symptoms of a brain tumor can be severe and have an enormous impact on a patient’s life. However they can often be managed with the use of certain medication.

Drug called corticosteroids are used to lower swelling in the brain which can lessen pain from the swelling without need for prescription pan medications. These drugs may also help improve neurological symptoms by decreasing the pressure from the tumor and swelling in the healthy brain tissue.

Antiseizure medication helps to control seizure. There are several types of drugs available and they are prescribed by your neurologist.

Surgery is the removal of the tumor and some surrounding healthy tissues during an operation. It is usually the first treatment used for a brain tumor and is often the only treatment needed for low-grade brain tumor. Removing the tumor can improve neurological symptoms, provide tissue for diagnosis, help make other brain tumor treatments more effective, and, in many instanced, improve the prognosis of the person with the brain tumor. Surgery to brain requires the removal of a part of the skull, a procedure called craniotomy. After the surgeon removes the tumor the patient’s own bone will be used to cover the opening in the skull. There is rapid advancement in surgery including the use of computer based techniques, Image Guided Surgery (IGS).

Radiation therapy is to use of high-energy x-rays or other particles to destroy tumor cells. It is used to slow the growth of tumor. It is done after surgery and along with chemotherapy. The most common radiation treatment is called external-beam radiation therapy in which radiation given outside the body. When a radiation treatment is given using implants it is called internal radiation therapy or brachytherapy.

External beam radiation therapies are directed as follows.

  • Conventional radiation therapy in certain situation, such as whole brain radiation therapy for brain metastases, this technique is appropriate.
  • 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy(3d-crt) this model can be used to aim the radiation beams directly at the tumor, sparing the healthy tissue from high doses of radiation therapy
  • Intensity modulate radiation therapy IMRT is a type of 3D-CRT that can more directly target a tumor. In this radiation broken up in to small beams and the intensity of each of these smaller beams can be changed.
  • Proton therapy proton therapy is type of external-beam radiation therapy that uses protons rather than higher energy protons can destroy tumor cells.
  • Stereotactic radio surgery is the use of single high dose of radiation given directly to the tumor and not healthy tissue it can be used when a person has more than 1 metastatic brain tumor
  • Fractioned stereotactic radiation therapy is delivered with stereotactic precision but divided into small daily dose called fraction given over several weeks, in contrast to the 1-day radio surgery.

Chemotherapy is the use of drug to destroy tumor cells, usually by stopping the cancers cells’ ability to grow and divide. The goal of chemotherapy can be to destroy tumor cells remaining after surgery, slow tumors growth, or reduce symptoms. Chmemotherapy is given by medical oncologists’ doctor who specializes in treating tumors with medications. Systematic chemotherapy gets into bloodstream to reach tumor cells throughout the body. Common ways to give chemotherapy include pills that is swallowed (orally), or by intravenous (IV) injection placed into vein by needle it can also be given through catheter.

Targeted therapy is a treatment targets the tumor’s specific genes, proteins, or the tissue environment that contributes to a tumor’s growth and survival. This type of treatment blocks the growth and spread of tumor cells while limiting the damage to healthy cells.

Alternating electrical field therapy this type of treatment uses a noninvasive portable device that interferes with parts of a cell that are needed for the tumor cells to grow and spread it is given by placing electrodes that produces an electric field on the outside of a person’s head. The available device is called is used for Glioblastoma.

Tumor treating Fields a wearable device locally or regionally delivered treatment that produces electric field to disrupt the rapid cell division exhibited by cancer cells by creating alternating, “wave-like” electric fields.

Focused ultrasound therapy is early stage on invasive therapeutic technology with the potential to improve quality of life and decrease the cost of care for patients with brain tumor. It is also to reduce the toxicity and side effects, and/or promote anti-tumor responses.

Clinical trials many clinical trials focus on new treatments researcher want to know that if there treatments are effective or safe they do clinical; trials. In which some they do ways to relieve symptoms and side effects during treatment. In the beginning of clinical trial patient are given safety and informed consent.

Palliative treatments vary widely and often include medications, nutritional changes relaxation exercise emotional support and other therapies.

Tubular Retractor System help neurosurgeon perform minimally invasive surgery to address brain aneurysm, stroke, blood clots, and brain tumors.

GLIADEL wafer is a new treatment approach of Glioblastoma, which involves controlled release delivery of Carmustine from biodegradable polymer wafers.

GliaSite Radiation Therapy System These therapies for malignant brain tumors are developed by researchers in John Hopkins Comprehensive brain Tumor Center, and now this treatment are used in nationwide.

Nutrition Therapy Malnourishment may interfere with your ability to heal by interrupting or delaying treatment. In America registered dietitian are available to work with patients including your gastroenterologist and naturopathic clinician, throughout treatment.

Pain Management those with advance brain tumor are most likely to have severe pain most of pain associated with cancer comes from the tumor itself, y pushing on nerves bones or organs which lead to significant discomfort and pain. Medical experts manage these pains with several therapies.

Oncology Rehabilitation Treatment brain cancer may cause cognitive and physical impairment (e.g. motor sensory language etc).rehabilitation involves wide range of therapies. Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech and language therapy, manual therapy, auriculotherapy

Advance Surgical Recovery Program (ASURE) it is important to resume their daily activities that are why Cancer care center designed this program to heal quickly. Typically provide physical therapy within 24 hours after surgery. It is designed to reduce fatigue and post surgery complications.

Spiritual Support for faith based individuals spiritual support is a fundamental aspect of their treatment at cancer treatment centers.

Adults survivor-ship program cancer care does not end when cancer end. The Adult Survivor-ship Program at Tufts Medical Center in Boston, MA offers ongoing care to individuals who have completed active treatment for cancer. Preventions, surveillance for cancer, intervention for treatment coordination among specialist are included in this program.

Integrative Therapies the most common brain tumor is Malignant, HIGH Grade Glioma (HGG), whose treatment begins with surgical resection of the tumor, followed by combined chemo, radiation regimen with the drug Temadol.

Read more on our Health and Treatment blog.

Author Bio:
Irsha Ikram,
Writer, Psychologist
Msc Psychology
Lahore, Pakistan

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